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Difference between revisions of "Flameman/dht-walnut/firmware"

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==== first shot, the proof of concept ====
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=== 01/2010, first shot, the proof of concept ===
  
 
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Revision as of 10:14, 31 January 2010

Firnware Bootloaders

  • ppcboot (not suggested)
  • U-Boot (it can't load kernel >=2.5.25)
  • U-Boot-kanojio (under development, it will be able to boot kernel >2.6.25, see below)


U-Boot 1.1.4

!!!NOTE!!! uboot-v1.1.4 has an issue with tftp-boot ramrootfs, but it works well with disk-boot, you'd better use uboot-v1.2 for a good firmware replacement: good and solid rock state out of my tests !



uboot is a significantly updated replacement for ppcboot. U-Boot for the DHT-Walnut DENX U-Boot and Linux Guide for Walnut

Changes since u-boot-1.1.4-df1.bin:

  • A default ethaddr is now set: de:ad:be:ef:00:00
  • The ethaddr can be changed as often as you like. Use: setenv ethaddr be:ef:be:ef:be:ef ; saveenv
  • Only the first two memory banks of a DIMM are used. This allows us to use (half of) double-sided DIMMS.

Some things to note when changing from ppcboot to U-Boot:

  • Default baudrate is 115200.
  • Occupies flash addresses 0xfffc0000-0xffffffff
  • Maintains two copies of environment data, primary copy at 0xfffb0000, backup copy at 0xfffa0000.

Installing

  • Boot the board and bring it to the ppcboot (or U-Boot) console prompt.
  • Download the new bootloader u-boot-1.1.4-df2.bin into RAM:

(1) Using Kermit (you'll need a terminal emulator that supports the kermit file transfer mode): loadb 800000 115200

  • Switch baudrate to 115200 bps and press ENTER ...
  • Ready for binary (kermit) download ...
  • Start Addr=0x00800000
  • Switch baudrate to 9600 bps and press ESC ...

(2) Using tftpboot (requires a tftp server and setting the environment variables ethaddr, ipaddr and serverip)

  • tftpboot 800000 u-boot-1.1.4-df2.bin Using ppc_4xx_eth0 device
* TFTP from server 192.168.1.1; our IP address is 192.168.1.2
* Filename 'u-boot.bin'.
* Load address: 0x800000
* Loading: done
* Bytes transferred = 262144 (40000 hex)
  • Verify that the download was received correctly (crc should be 0xd3cef189):
  • crc 800000 40000
  • CRC32 for 00800000 ... 0083ffff ==> d3cef189
  • Unprotect the last 4 sectors:
  • protect off fffc0000 ffffffff
  • Un-Protected 4 sectors

From this point on, do *not* power down the board, and type *very* carefully. This is the critical section.

  • Erase the last four sectors:
  • erase fffc0000 ffffffff
* Erase Flash from 0xfffc0000 to 0xffffffff
* Erasing sector fffc0000
* Erasing sector fffd0000
* Erasing sector fffe0000
* Erasing sector ffff0000
* done
* Erased 4 sectors
  • Copy the new bootloader into flash:
  • cp.b 800000 fffc0000 40000
* Copy to Flash... done
  • Verify that the image is correct (crc of u-boot-1.1.4-df2.bin is 0xd3cef189).
  • crc fffc0000 40000
* CRC32 for fffc0000 ... ffffffff ==> d3cef189

End of critical section. Congratulations!

  • Reset the board and see that the new version booted!
  • Don't forget to change your baud rate to 115200!
  • reset

You will see a message like : *** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment. That's normal. It will go away after you issue a saveenv command.

ppcboot 1.1.6

the latest ported ppcboot is 1.1.6, it need a patch and it will build for flashing at 0xfff80000 as a replacement for the pcboot-1.1.2 that comes with the board.


Installing

Quick notes on installing ppcboot v1.1.6.1

  • Boot the board and bring it to the ppcboot console prompt.
  • Check current flash configuration:

=> flinfo

Bank # 1: AMD AM29F040 (512 Kbit, uniform sector size)
  Size: 512 KB in 8 Sectors
  Sector Start Addresses:
    FFF80000  RO  FFF90000  RO  FFFA0000  RO  FFFB0000      FFFC0000
    FFFD0000      FFFE0000      FFFF0000     


Note that the bottom three sectors, containing the existing 1.1.2 bootloader, are protected. We also want to protect the last sector, which contains the initial jump instruction, so:

=> protect on ffff0000 ffffffff

Protected 1 sectors
  • Zero out a section of ram before the download:

=> mw.b 400000 0 30000

  • Now download the new bootloader ppcboot1.1.6.1.bin into ram (you'll need a terminal emulator that supports the kermit file transfer mode):

=> loadb 400000 115200

## Switch baudrate to 115200 bps and press ENTER ...
## Ready for binary (kermit) download ...
## Start Addr      = 0x00400000
## Switch baudrate to 9600 bps and press ESC ...
  • Verify that the download was received correctly (crc should be 0x083fb0a3):

=> crc 400000 30000

CRC32 for 00400000 ... 0042ffff ==> 083fb0a3
  • Erase the three spare sectors, which we'll use to backup the 1.1.2 bootloader:

=> erase fffc0000 fffeffff

Erase Flash from 0xfffc0000 to 0xfffeffff
Erasing sector fffc0000
.Erasing sector fffd0000
.Erasing sector fffe0000
. done
Erased 3 sectors
  • (Optional: erase the 0xfffb0000 sector, which will be used for non-volatile environment storage.)

=> erase fffb0000 fffbffff

Erase Flash from 0xfffb0000 to 0xfffbffff
Erasing sector fffb0000
. done
Erased 1 sectors
  • Check that sectors 0xfffc0000 to 0xfffe0000 are erased, and sector 0xffff0000 is protected:

=> flinfo

Bank # 1: AMD AM29F040 (512 Kbit, uniform sector size)
  Size: 512 KB in 8 Sectors
  Sector Start Addresses:
    FFF80000  RO  FFF90000  RO  FFFA0000  RO  FFFB0000 E    FFFC0000 E
    FFFD0000 E    FFFE0000 E    FFFF0000  RO 
  • Now we're ready to backup the 1.1.2 bootloader. Copy three sectors from 0xfff80000 to 0xfffc0000:

=> cp.b fff80000 fffc0000 30000

Copy to Flash... done
  • Easy enough, right? Compare just to be sure it went ok:

=> cmp.b fff80000 fffc0000 30000

Total of 196608 bytes were the same
  • Now we're ready to modify the bootsectors. We'll turn off protection, erase the three bottom sectors, and copy the new 1.1.6.1 bootloader from ram.
  • Unprotect the bottom three sectors:

=> protect off fff80000 fffaffff

Un-Protected 3 sectors

From this point on, do *not* power down the board. This is the critical section.

  • Erase the bottom three sectors with the original 1.1.2 bootloader:

=> erase fff80000 fffaffff

Erase Flash from 0xfff80000 to 0xfffaffff
Erasing sector fff80000
.Erasing sector fff90000
.Erasing sector fffa0000
. done
Erased 3 sectors
  • Copy the new bootloader into flash:

=> cp.b 400000 fff80000 30000

Copy to Flash... done
  • Verify the copy:

=> cmp.b 400000 fff80000 30000

Total of 196608 bytes were the same
  • Verify that the image is correct (crc of ppcboot1.1.6.1.bin is 0x083fb0a3).

=> crc fff80000 30000

CRC32 for fff80000 ... fffaffff ==> 083fb0a3

End of critical section. Congratulations'

  • We've finished modifying flash, so turn the write protection back on:

=> protect on fff80000 fffaffff

Protected 3 sectors
  • Reset the board and see that the new version booted

=> reset

PPCBoot 1.1.6 (Feb  5 2006 - 21:38:51)

CPU:   IBM PowerPC 405GP Rev. E at 266.640 MHz (PLB=66, OPB=33, EBC=33 MHz)
           PCI async ext clock used, internal PCI arbiter enabled
           16 kB I-Cache 8 kB D-Cache


To sum up, you'll end up executing these commands:

=> protect on ffff0000 ffffffff

=> mw.b 400000 0 30000

=> loadb 400000 115200

=> crc 400000 30000

=> erase fffc0000 fffeffff

=> cp.b fff80000 fffc0000 30000

=> cmp.b fff80000 fffc0000 30000

=> protect off fff80000 fffaffff

=> erase fff80000 fffaffff

=> cp.b 400000 fff80000 30000

=> cmp.b 400000 fff80000 30000

=> crc fff80000 30000

=> protect on fff80000 fffaffff

new firmware, uboot-v1.2-hack (the most mature i suggest)

brief about how to install on flash


=> printenv
stdin=serial
stdout=serial
stderr=serial
...

=> setenv baudrate 9600
=> setenv loads_echo 1
=> ethaddr DE:AD:BE:EF:DE:AD
=> ethaddr serverip 192.168.1.14
=> ethaddr ipaddr 192.168.1.2
=> tftpboot 800000 uboot-v1.2.img
TFTP from server 192.168.1.14; our IP address is 192.$
Filename 'uboot-v1.2.img'.
Load address: 0x800000
Loading: *^H#########################################$
done
Bytes transferred = 262144 (40000 hex)

=> crc 800000 40000
CRC32 for 00800000 ... 0083ffff ==> 3aae52fa

=> protect off fffc0000 ffffffff
Un-Protected 4 sectors

=> erase fffc0000 ffffffff
Erase Flash from 0xfffc0000 to 0xffffffff
Erasing sector fffc0000
.Erasing sector fffd0000
.Erasing sector fffe0000
.Erasing sector ffff0000
. done
Erased 4 sectors

=> cp.b 800000 fffc0000 40000
Copy to Flash... done

=> crc fffc0000 40000
CRC32 for fffc0000 ... ffffffff ==> 3aae52fa

=> protect on fffc0000 ffffffff
=> reset

brief about set baud and env

# setenv baudrate 9600
## Switch baudrate to 9600 bps and press ENTER ...

# saveenv
Saving Environment to Flash...
Un-Protected 1 sectors
Un-Protected 1 sectors
Erasing Flash...
. done
Erased 1 sectors
Writing to Flash... done
Protected 1 sectors
Protected 1 sectors


download

crc (40000) = 3aae52fa

issues


...

uboot-2009 (not mature, not good, under development)

it's under development, it will released soon

status:

  • uboot-1.2.0-hack-new: tftpboot is working with ramrootfs, ide is working
  • uboot-2009: tftpboot is working with ramrootfs, ide is not working, eth0 issued, tftpboot issued with a download > 6Mb


uboot-kanojio

kernel>=2.6.25 requires ARCH=POWERPC, but they simply do not boot with uBoot: it seems the problem is that no "old-style" uImage is available for dht-walnut/walnut in unified powerpc source; it now requires the device tree.

From Documentation/powerpc/bootwrapper.txt:

  uImage:      Native image format used by U-Boot.  The uImage target
           does not add any boot code.  It just wraps a compressed
           vmlinux in the uImage data structure.  This image
           requires a version of U-Boot that is able to pass
           a device tree to the kernel at boot.  If using an older
           version of U-Boot, then you need to use a cuImage
           instead.

There is no walnut cuImage(???), so the only choice is to use this "new-style" uImage and have uboot pass a walnut device-tree file to the kernel.

device-tree stuff is NOT supported with uboot, so ... you may use the new kanojio boot second stage loader


second stage kexec boot loader

uboot is the first stage bootloader, it's the first thing fetched by the cpu when you switch on the board.

the suggested (and hacked) uboot release is working fine, it's able to RAW read a PC partition from the hard drive putting the contents on the ram .. you could load a kernel from the HD and boot it.

it is also able to tftp a kernel from the net, but .. a bug is surviving from the 1.1.* release: this bug is limiting the amount of data you can tftp boot: 4.5Mb !

if your kernel+ramrootf is greater than 4.5Mb it will not be decompressed right cause of memory corruption (probably cause of a buffer overflow somewhere i dunno in the firmware)

so ! i developed a special second stage boot loader: it will be smaller than 4.5Mb and it will able to boot from net, pata, sata, scsi, firewire

and it should be able to read and boot all the binary format: elf, uImage, zImage, ecc


01/2010, first shot, the proof of concept

[ .k.a.n.o.j.o. ]
kexec boot loader
v01.2, 2010-01-28

press a key to stop the autoboot process

# cmdlist
 231 help
 230 cmdlist
 252 ver
 232 macaddr
 233 tcpscan
 234 ifconfig
 235 endian
 236 ttftp
 240 exec
 241 cmdline
 237 env
 237 printenv
 238 saveenv
 239 setenv
 254 
 255 reboot  
 255 exit

# help printenv
show all the environment entries

# printenv
env.machinename="dht-walnut"
env.root="/dev/hda3,ro"
env.fstype="ext3"
env.console="ttyS0,9600"
env.net_dev="eth0"
env.net_ip="192.168.1.11"
env.net_mask="255.255.255.0"
env.ttftp_server_ip="192.168.1.14"
env.ttftp_server_port="2001"
env.rmshell_port="2002"
env.timeout="5s"
env.boot="net"
env.bootfile="dht-walnut--kernel-2.6.22-ramrootfs.img"
env.net="ttftp $ttfpt_server_ip $ttftp_server_port $bootfile autoexec"

# ttftp
connect(): Connection refused, no ttftp server found

# tcpscan $ttftp_server 1 2100
TCP port scanning
connect_port={ 22  23  80  111  443 2000}

# setenv ttftp_server_port 2000

# boot
method=net
downloading "dht-walnut--kernel-2.6.22-ramrootfs.img" from 192.168.1.14/2000 ... done
kexec ... kernel loaded into ram ... jumping to it

i will release as soon as possible