Difference between revisions of "Processors"

From eLinux.org
Jump to: navigation, search
(PowerPC)
(43 intermediate revisions by 23 users not shown)
Line 16: Line 16:
  
 
Some major ARM platforms/SOCs are:
 
Some major ARM platforms/SOCs are:
* [[DaVinci]] from [http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/landing/davinci/firstproducts.html Texas Instruments]
+
* [[Sitara]], [[DaVinci]] and [[OMAP]] from [http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/landing/davinci/firstproducts.html Texas Instruments]
* OMAP - by TI
+
** TI lists where to find the Linux kernel GIT repositories for the broad market devices on their [http://wiki.davincidsp.com/index.php/Applications_Processors_Crossreference applications processors cross-reference]
 +
** There is also an [http://omappedia.org/wiki/Linux_OMAP_Kernel_Project OMAP Linux kernel project]
 
* i.MX - by FreeScale
 
* i.MX - by FreeScale
 
** Freescale's GIT repository for i.MX Linux support is at: http://opensource.freescale.com
 
** Freescale's GIT repository for i.MX Linux support is at: http://opensource.freescale.com
Line 32: Line 33:
 
* Philips LPC21xx series of ARM processors are currently the lowest-cost ARM processors available. But they have no MMU.
 
* Philips LPC21xx series of ARM processors are currently the lowest-cost ARM processors available. But they have no MMU.
 
* [[JuiceBox]] uses a ARM S3C44B0X. It runs uClinux.
 
* [[JuiceBox]] uses a ARM S3C44B0X. It runs uClinux.
* Atmel AT91RM9200 -- has MMU.
+
* AT91 - by Atmel
 +
** [http://www.atmel.com/devices/RM9200.aspx AT91RM9200] - ARM920T based -- has MMU
 +
** [http://www.atmel.com/products/microcontrollers/arm/default.aspx AT91SAM9 Series] - ARM926EJ-S based -- has MMU
 +
** [http://www.atmel.com/Microsite/sama5d3/default.aspx SAMA5D3 Series] - Cortex-A5 based -- has MMU
 +
** Linux gateway : [http://www.linux4sam.org www.linux4sam.org]
 +
** Github for Linux-based systems : [https://github.com/linux4sam linux4sam.org github]
 
* Cirrus Logic ([http://arm.cirrus.com/ Linux forum and download site])
 
* Cirrus Logic ([http://arm.cirrus.com/ Linux forum and download site])
 
** EP73xx - ARM720T based
 
** EP73xx - ARM720T based
 
** EP93xx - ARM920T based
 
** EP93xx - ARM920T based
 +
* Samsung Electronics (System LSI)
 +
** [[S3C24xx]] - ARM 9 Series
 +
*** [[S3C2410]] [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2410&xFmly_id=229] - ARM920T
 +
*** [[S3C2440]] [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2440&xFmly_id=229] - ARM920T
 +
*** S3C2443 [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2443&xFmly_id=229] - ARM920T
 +
*** [[S3C2412]] [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2412&xFmly_id=229] - ARM926EJ
 +
*** S3C2413 [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2413&xFmly_id=229] - ARM926EJ
 +
*** S3C2416 [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2416&xFmly_id=229] - ARM926EJ
 +
*** S3C2450 [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=836&partnum=S3C2450&xFmly_id=229] - ARM926EJ
 +
** ARM 11 Series
 +
*** S3C6400 - ARM1176
 +
*** [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=835&partnum=S3C6410&xFmly_id=229 S3C6410] - ARM1176, 800Mhz, 667Mhz, 533Mhz
 +
*** [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=835&partnum=S5P6440&xFmly_id=229 S5P6440] - ARM1176, 667Mhz, 533Mhz
 +
*** S5P6442
 +
*** S5P6450
 +
** Cortex-A8 Series
 +
*** [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=834&partnum=S5PC100&xFmly_id=229 S5PC100] - 833Mhz, 667Mhz
 +
*** [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=834&partnum=Exynos%203110&xFmly_id=229 EXYNOS3110] - 1Ghz
 +
** Cortex-A9 Series
 +
*** [http://www.samsung.com/global/business/semiconductor/productInfo.do?fmly_id=844&partnum=Exynos%204210&xFmly_id=229 EXYNOS4210] - 1.2Ghz, 1Ghz
 +
* [[Allwinner Technology]] ([http://www.allwinnertech.com/ AllwinnerTech(Chinese)])
 +
** [[A1x]] - Cortex-A8, 1~1.5Ghz
 +
*Qualcomm Inc. [http://www.qualcomm.com]
 +
**[[Snapdragon S3 (Scorpion)]]
 +
**[[Snapdragon S4 (Krait)]]
  
 
== MIPS ==
 
== MIPS ==
''need info here''
+
Information about MIPS processor architecture can be found [http://www.mips.com here]. For the Linux port information can be found [http://www.linux-mips.org here].
 +
 
 +
Processors based on MIPS architecture include
 +
# [http://www.toshiba.com/taec/Catalog/Family.do?familyid=5 TX System RISC] from Toshiba.
 +
# [http://www.pmc-sierra.com/mips-processors MSP series] of processor from PMC Sierra.
  
 
== SuperH ==
 
== SuperH ==
Line 100: Line 135:
 
*** HDL-AV250 - LANDISK with Home Network DLNA guideline support
 
*** HDL-AV250 - LANDISK with Home Network DLNA guideline support
 
*** LANTank - LANDISK kit SuperTank(CHALLENGER) Series
 
*** LANTank - LANDISK kit SuperTank(CHALLENGER) Series
**** HDL-WxxxU based twin drive bulk NAS kit. LANTank have a special feature witch supported network media server(cf. iTunes etc..).
+
**** HDL-WxxxU based twin drive bulk NAS kit. LANTank have a special feature that supported network media server(cf. iTunes etc..).
 
* [http://www.e-linux.jp/tmm_index.html TOWA MECCS CORPORATION]
 
* [http://www.e-linux.jp/tmm_index.html TOWA MECCS CORPORATION]
 
** TMM1000 - SH7709
 
** TMM1000 - SH7709
Line 127: Line 162:
  
 
== PowerPC ==
 
== PowerPC ==
For Linux embedded applications requiring Floating Point in a SOC the MPC5200 is hard to beat.
+
Some processors and tools for [[PowerPC]] are
  
Freescale's highly integrated, cost-effective [http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/prod_summary.jsp?code=MPC5200&fpsp=1&tab=Documentation_Tab MPC5200] is well suited for networking, media, industrial control, and automotive applications. It delivers 760 MIPS with a Floating Point Unit (FPU), hardware Memory Management Unit (MMU) for fast task switching, is packed with I/O, and operates at only one watt. The MPC5200 serves the processing-intensive network media gateway, network access storage, set-top box, audio jukebox automotive, Internet access, industrial automation, image detection/analysis, and electronic/medical instrumentation markets. With its successful foundation in the automotive/telematics market via the mobileGT™  alliance and platforms, all markets can now enjoy extended temperature, automotive qualification, and life cycles typically demanded in that industry. A solid choice of Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) and development boards with Board Support Packages (BSPs) provides users with a complete and flexible set of solutions.
+
=== Processors ===
 
+
* [[Freescale MPC5200]] SOC
Product Highlights
+
* [[RAD750]]
 
+
The MPC5200 is based on a 400 MHz MPC603e PowerPC core with an integrated double precision Floating Point Unit (FPU) that is qualified at -40oC to +85oC. It incorporates a hardware-based memory management unit (MMU) for advanced memory protection schemes, fast task switching and broad RTOS support. The MPC5200 was designed for fast data throughput and processing. The integrated BestComm DMA controller offloads the main MPC603e core from I/O intensive data transfers. An integrated Double Data Rate (DDR) memory controller accelerates data access with an effective memory bus speed of 266 MHz. A high-speed PCI interface backed by the BestComm DMA controller and DDR memory support enables high-speed data transfers in and out of the MPC5200.
+
 
+
    * MPC603e series PowerPC™ processor core
+
    * 0-400 MHz operation at -40oC to +85oC temperature range
+
    * Double Precision Floating Point Unit (FPU)
+
    * Instruction and Data Memory Management Unit (MMU)
+
    * 16K Instruction and 16K Data Caches
+
    * BestComm Intelligent DMA I/O Controller
+
    * SDR and 133 MHz Double Data Rate (DDR) memory interface (266 MHz effective)
+
    * Local Plus interface for flash memory, etc.
+
    * 10/100 Ethernet MAC
+
    * Peripheral Control Interface (PCI) Version 2.2
+
    * ATA/IDE Interface
+
    * USB 1.1 Host (two each. USB 2.0 compatible)
+
    * Programmable Serial Controllers (six)
+
    * Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
+
    * I2C (two)
+
    * I2S (up to three)
+
    * CAN 2.0 A/B (two)
+
    * J1850 BDLC-D
+
    * GPIO (up to 56)
+
    * 8 Timers
+
    * 1.5V core, 3.3V external (and 2.5V for DDR memory)
+
    * 272 Pin Plastic Pin Ball Grid Array (PBGA) Package
+
    * AEC-Q100, QS9000/TS-16949 automotive grade available
+
    * Lead (Pb) and lead-free packages
+
  
 +
=== Tools ===
 
The DENX Embedded Linux Development Kit (ELDK) provides a complete and powerful software development environment for embedded and real-time systems. It is available for ARM, PowerPC and MIPS processors and consists of:
 
The DENX Embedded Linux Development Kit (ELDK) provides a complete and powerful software development environment for embedded and real-time systems. It is available for ARM, PowerPC and MIPS processors and consists of:
  
 
     * Cross Development Tools (Compiler, Assembler, Linker etc.) to develop software for the target system.
 
     * Cross Development Tools (Compiler, Assembler, Linker etc.) to develop software for the target system.
 
     * Native Tools (Shell, commands and libraries) which provide a standard Linux development environment that runs on the target system.
 
     * Native Tools (Shell, commands and libraries) which provide a standard Linux development environment that runs on the target system.
     * Firmware that can be easily ported to new boards and processors.
+
     * U-Boot - Firmware that can be easily ported to new boards and processors.
     * Linux kernel including the complete source-code with all device drivers, board-support functions etc.
+
     * Linux - Kernel including the complete source-code with all device drivers, board-support functions etc.
     * RTAI (Real Time Application Interface) Extension for systems requiring hard real-time responses.
+
     * Xenomai - Real-Time and RTOS Emulation Framework
 
     * SELF (Simple Embedded Linux Framework) as fundament to build your embedded systems on.
 
     * SELF (Simple Embedded Linux Framework) as fundament to build your embedded systems on.
  
Line 173: Line 182:
 
The ELDK can be downloaded for free from several mirror sites or ordered on CD-ROM for a nominal charge (99 Euro). To order the CD please contact office@denx.de
 
The ELDK can be downloaded for free from several mirror sites or ordered on CD-ROM for a nominal charge (99 Euro). To order the CD please contact office@denx.de
  
Detailed information about the ELDK is available [http://www.denx.de/wiki/DULG/ELDK here].  
+
Detailed information about the ELDK is available [http://www.denx.de/wiki/DULG/ELDK here].
 +
 
 +
=== RT Patches ===
 +
* See [[RTPatch For PowerPC]]
 +
 
 +
=== Documents ===
 +
* [[Book E and PPC 440]] - Descriptions about diffrences  Book E and Ppc440.
 +
* [[Ppc Wait Mode]] - PPC wait mode and sleep mode information
 +
 
 +
== XScale ==
 +
CE2110 Media Processor
 +
* [http://www.intel.com/design/celect/2110/ CE2110 Media Processor]
 +
The highly integrated Intel CE 2110 Media Processor helps to simplify the design of consumer electronics products with reduced BOM cost. The integrated Intel XScale® processor core at 1GHz provides processing performance and headroom to deploy new revenue-generating applications. Hardware-based decode of widely used video codecs (MPEG-2, H.264) maximizes system-level performance by enabling the processor core to be used exclusively for applications.
 +
 
 +
The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor also includes an Intel® Micro Signal Architecture (Intel® MSA) DSP core for audio codecs, a PowerVR* 2D/3D graphics accelerator, hardware accelerators for encryption and decryption, comprehensive peripheral interfaces, analog and digital input/outputs, and a transport interface for ATSC/DVB input.
 +
 
 +
* The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor Development Platform is designed to reduce time-to-market for new applications.
 +
* The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor reference platform provides the foundation for rapid development of new customer designs and product demonstrations.
  
 
== x86 ==
 
== x86 ==
Line 180: Line 206:
 
:* AMD Geode GX / CS5535
 
:* AMD Geode GX / CS5535
 
:* AMD Geode LX / CS5536
 
:* AMD Geode LX / CS5536
 +
 +
* [http://meld.org/library/education/intel-architectures Graphical representation of Intel x86 processors from i386 - present] on Meld.org
 +
 +
== AVR32 ==
 +
 +
* AP7000 from [http://www.atmel.com/products/AVR32/ap7.asp Atmel]
 +
In 2010 Atmel stopped the further development of the AP7000 processor.
 +
 +
== Blackfin ==
 +
 +
* [[Blackfin]]
 +
 +
== m68k ==
 +
 +
The Freescale m68k family includes:
 +
* 68xxx
 +
* Coldfire
 +
* DragonBall
 +
 +
Resources:
 +
 +
* [http://www.wildrice.com/ColdFire Coldfire Mailing List]
 +
 +
== Further reading ==
 +
 +
* Several processors have their own wiki, listed on the [[WikiNode]].
 
   
 
   
 
[[Category:NeedsEditing]]
 
[[Category:NeedsEditing]]
[[Category:Processors]]
+
[[Category:Processors| ]]

Revision as of 09:20, 1 May 2013

Here is a list of different processor families, with miscellaneous notes for development information:

See also Hardware Hacking for a list of systems that include these processors.

ARM

See ARM website and the Wikipedia ARM article for information about the ARM architecture and processor family.

From the Linux perspective, there are 2 very different kinds of ARM chips:

  • ARM processors that include a memory management unit (MMU), and can run standard Linux
  • ARM processors without MMU. These can run a modified version of Linux called uClinux ( http://uclinux.org/ ), enabling Linux to run on MMUless platforms or embedded processors with memory protection unit (MPU). These include ARM processors such as ARM7TDMI, ARM1156T2(F)-S or ARM Cortex-R4(F) for instance.

Please note that because of security considerations for MMU-less processors, it is unwise to use them when 3rd-party or untrusted code will be running on the device. For locked-down, single function devices, MMU-less processors may be appropriate. They are usually less expensive than processors with MMU.

Some major ARM platforms/SOCs are:

MIPS

Information about MIPS processor architecture can be found here. For the Linux port information can be found here.

Processors based on MIPS architecture include

  1. TX System RISC from Toshiba.
  2. MSP series of processor from PMC Sierra.

SuperH

Superh logo.gif

Built by Renesas Technology the webpage of record for the SuperH family of microprocessors can be found here: SuperH RISC Engine Family.

Wikipedia Page: SuperH

Linux on SuperH: linux-sh

Renesas SuperH Overview

SuperH is an embedded RISC developed for high cost-performance, miniaturization, and performance per unit of power consumption (MIPS/W). We are developing CPU cores for a wide range of applications and functions and have many products available. Our product lines include a series with the SH-2 as the CPU core and on-chip large-capacity flash memory and peripheral functions such as timer, serial I/O, and AD converter, and a series with the SH-3 or SH-4 as the CPU core, which achieves high-speed data processing and is equipped with cache and MMU. Additionally, there is lineup of series with the SH2-DSP or SH3-DSP as the CPU core, which have full DSP functions and an emphasis on multimedia and communications processing. Currently available products also have lots of features, such as low power modes, low power consumption, and small size. Various versatile operating systems and development tools have been improved, allowing for more efficient development.

Devices

  • Sega
    • Dreamcast - Limited to the machine models that can start by MIL-CD and usage of a Broad Band Adapter is recommended.
  • Hitachi ULSI Systems
    • MS7206SE01 - SH72060 Solution Engine
    • MS7750SE01 - SH7750(sh4) Solution Engine
    • MS7709SE01 - SH7709(sh3) Solution Engine
  • SuperH, Inc.
    • ["MicroDev"]
  • HP Jornada
    • 525 (SH7709 (sh3))
    • 548 (SH7709A (sh3))
    • 620LX (SH7709 (sh3))
    • 660LX (SH7709 (sh3))
    • 680 (SH7709A (sh3))
    • 690 (SH7709A (sh3))
  • Renesas Technology Corp.
    • RTS7751R2D - CE Linux Forum(CELF)Compliant Evaluation Board
  • Renesas Europe/MPC Data Limited
    • EDOSK7705 - SH7705 sh3
  • EDOSK7760 - SH7760 sh4
    • EDOSK7751R - SH7751R sh4
    • SH7751R SystemH - SH7751R sh
  • CQ Publishing Co.,Ltd.
    • CQ RISC Evaluation Kit(CqREEK)/SH4-PCI with Linux
    • [http://www.kmckk.co.jp/eng/ Kyoto Microcomputer Co., Ltd. (KMC or KμC)
    • Solution Platform KZP-01 KZP-01[Mainboard] + KZ-SH4RPCI-01[SH4 CPU Board]
  • Silicon Linux Co,. Ltd.
    • CAT760 - SH7760
    • CAT709 - SH7709S
    • CAT68701 - SH7708R For A-one CATBUS[Designed for 68000 board] compliant
  • Daisen Electronic Industrial Co., Ltd.
    • SH2000 - SH7709A 118MHz
    • SH2002 - SH7709S 200MHz
    • SH-500 - SH7709S 118MHz
    • SH-1000 - SH7709S 133MHz
    • SH-2004 - SH7750R 240MHz
  • IO-DATA DEVICE, Inc.(Network Attached Storage [NAS Series)]
    • LAN-iCN - NAS Adapter for IODATA HDD with "i-connect" Interface
    • LAN-iCN2"] - NAS Adapter for IODATA HDD with "i-connect" Interface
    • LANDISK"] - SH4-266MHz[FSB133MHz] RAM64MB UDMA133 USB x2 10/100Base-T
      • HDL-xxxU - LANDISK Series NAS Standard Model
      • HDL-xxxUR - LANDISK with RICOH IPSiO G series print monitor for Windows support
      • HDL-WxxxU - LANDISK with wide body & twin drive support for Heavy storage or RAID1
      • HDL-AV250 - LANDISK with Home Network DLNA guideline support
      • LANTank - LANDISK kit SuperTank(CHALLENGER) Series
        • HDL-WxxxU based twin drive bulk NAS kit. LANTank have a special feature that supported network media server(cf. iTunes etc..).
  • TOWA MECCS CORPORATION
    • TMM1000 - SH7709
    • TMM1100 - (SH7727
    • TMM1200 - SH7727
  • Sophia Systems
    • Sophia SH7709A Evaluation Board
    • Sophia SH7750 Evaluation Board
    • Sophia SH7751 Evaluation Board
  • MovingEye Inc.
    • A3pci7003 - Using SH7750/ART-Linux [Linux with Realtime Extension]
  • AlphaProject Co., Ltd.
    • MS104-SH4 - SH7750R/PC104(Embedded ISA Bus) with apLinux
  • Interface Corporation.
    • MPC-SH02 - SH7750S: ATX Motherboard Style
    • PCI-SH02xx"] - SH7750S: PCI-CARD Style
  • TAC Inc.
    • T-SH7706LAN another name "Mitsuiwa SH3 board" SH-MIN - SH7706A/128MHz Flash512KB SDRAM 8MB 10BASE-T
  • SecureComputing/SnapGear (older products, check ebay etc, all can netboot and have a debug header)
    • SG530 - SH7751@166MHz RAM16MB FLASH4MB 2x10/100 1xSerial
    • SG550 - SH7751@166MHz RAM16MB FLASH8MB 2x10/100 1xSerial
    • SG570 - SH7751R@240MHz RAM16MB FLASH8MB 3x10/100 1xSerial
    • SG575 - SH7751R@240MHz RAM64MB FLASH16MB 3x10/100 1xSerial
    • SG630 - SH7751@166MHz PCI NIC card RAM16MB FLASH4MB 1x10/100 1xSerial-header
    • SG635 - SH7751R@240MHz PCI NIC card RAM16MB FLASH16MB 1x10/100 1xSerial-header

PowerPC

Some processors and tools for PowerPC are

Processors

Tools

The DENX Embedded Linux Development Kit (ELDK) provides a complete and powerful software development environment for embedded and real-time systems. It is available for ARM, PowerPC and MIPS processors and consists of:

   * Cross Development Tools (Compiler, Assembler, Linker etc.) to develop software for the target system.
   * Native Tools (Shell, commands and libraries) which provide a standard Linux development environment that runs on the target system.
   * U-Boot - Firmware that can be easily ported to new boards and processors.
   * Linux - Kernel including the complete source-code with all device drivers, board-support functions etc.
   * Xenomai - Real-Time and RTOS Emulation Framework
   * SELF (Simple Embedded Linux Framework) as fundament to build your embedded systems on.

All components of the ELDK are available for free with complete source code under GPL and other Free Software Licenses. Also, detailed instructions to rebuild all the tools and packages from scratch are included.

The ELDK can be downloaded for free from several mirror sites or ordered on CD-ROM for a nominal charge (99 Euro). To order the CD please contact office@denx.de

Detailed information about the ELDK is available here.

RT Patches

Documents

XScale

CE2110 Media Processor

The highly integrated Intel CE 2110 Media Processor helps to simplify the design of consumer electronics products with reduced BOM cost. The integrated Intel XScale® processor core at 1GHz provides processing performance and headroom to deploy new revenue-generating applications. Hardware-based decode of widely used video codecs (MPEG-2, H.264) maximizes system-level performance by enabling the processor core to be used exclusively for applications.

The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor also includes an Intel® Micro Signal Architecture (Intel® MSA) DSP core for audio codecs, a PowerVR* 2D/3D graphics accelerator, hardware accelerators for encryption and decryption, comprehensive peripheral interfaces, analog and digital input/outputs, and a transport interface for ATSC/DVB input.

  • The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor Development Platform is designed to reduce time-to-market for new applications.
  • The Intel CE 2110 Media Processor reference platform provides the foundation for rapid development of new customer designs and product demonstrations.

x86

  • Geode from AMD
  • AMD Geode GX / CS5535
  • AMD Geode LX / CS5536

AVR32

In 2010 Atmel stopped the further development of the AP7000 processor.

Blackfin

m68k

The Freescale m68k family includes:

  • 68xxx
  • Coldfire
  • DragonBall

Resources:

Further reading

  • Several processors have their own wiki, listed on the WikiNode.