BeagleBoardDebian

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Revision as of 19:14, 17 February 2009 by John3909 (talk | contribs) (Boot)
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This page is about running a (ARM EABI) Debian distribution at BeagleBoard. BeagleBoard will boot the (ARM EABI) Debian distribution from SD card. To prepare the SD card and install (ARM EABI) Debian on it, QEMU on host PC will be used, following Aurélien Jarno's excellent Debian on an emulated ARM machine howto.

Note: Debian armel deb's are compiled for armv4t, this allows debian to support a larger number of arm devices with a single port, at only the sacrifice of speed. For a more optimized and faster system checkout: Mojo Project (armv5el & armv6el-vfp editions). The OMAP3530 on the Beagle Board is armv7-a. See Handhelds Mojo (ARM) at BeagleBoard (formerly known as Ubuntu (ARM)) page, too.

Recommended Kernel

So like any big document, it's hard to keep everything up to date. So if your trying Debian/Mojo for the first time, here's what i recommend, (and it's the same thing i'm running on the build beagle.)

Considered Stable: 2.6.27-oer4 : for lenny http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/lenny/v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4/

Uboot: 2008-rc2 or +

Currently Testing with Build Beagle: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/beagle/lenny/v2.6.28-401b285-oer5/

Native Install via debian-installer (NON QEMU based)

Note: This install method requires an LCD+usb(keyboard,etc), and uboot 2008-rc2 (Upgrading u-boot (2.6.27's and later)) or later..

Testing First Release:

PC: Format SD Card

You will need a 1GB SD card or greater.

Standard System : ~455MB
+ Desktop environment (GNOME) : ~2.9GB

Starting with an empty SD card and using gparted, create:

50 MiB Primary Partition, fat32
Leave remaining space for the Debian-Installer

PC: Setup SD uboot Partition

Mount your SD card fat32 partition. (/media/disk/)

RC-1 (Files dated Nov)

cd /media/disk/
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/CC-v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4
wget http://ftp.nl.debian.org/debian/dists/testing/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
mv CC-v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4 uImage
gzip -d initrd.gz
dd if=initrd of=initrd.pad ibs=8388608 conv=sync


RC-2 (Files dated Jan23)

cd /media/disk/
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/CC-v2.6.28-9a6536c-oer8
wget http://ftp.debian.org/debian/dists/sid/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
mv CC-v2.6.28-9a6536c-oer8 uImage
gzip -d initrd.gz
dd if=initrd of=initrd.pad ibs=8388608 conv=sync

Beagleboard

Mount SD card

For Kernel 2.6.26 and 2.6.27
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; fatload mmc 0:1 0x81600000 initrd.pad; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 ramdisk_size=8192 root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext2 initrd=0x81600000,8M video=omapfb:mode:1280x720@60'
saveenv
boot

For Kernel 2.6.28 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; fatload mmc 0:1 0x81600000 initrd.pad; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 ramdisk_size=8192 root=/dev/ram0 rw rootfstype=ext2 initrd=0x81600000,8M omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-24@60'
saveenv
boot

The debian-installer should load via the framebuffer, if the screen remains blank, try different resolutions for the bootargs:

video=omapfb:mode:1280x720@60
Modes:
"640x480@60""800x600@60""1024x768@60""1280x720@60"480p60""576p50""720p50""720p60""1080p24""1080p25""1080p30",
Continue the install without loading kernel modules? : <yes>

DON'T Select "Guided - use entire disk" <- Loose the fat boot partition.

Recommended: Select Guided - Use the largest continuous free space

Example:

Partition #2 of SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda) as ext3
Partition #5 of SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda) as swap
Continue without installing a kernel? : <yes>
Standard System
No BootLoader: <ok>

Install complete

Reboot (aka remove power)

Uboot update bootcmd & bootargs

For Linux Kernel 2.6.26 and 2.6.27
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro video=omapfb:mode:1280x720@60'
saveenv
boot
For Linux Kernel 2.6.28 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-24@60'
saveenv
boot

Debian will fix the ext3 partition, it'll try to reboot, after halting remove and reapply power.

Login & Install kernel-image

cd /home/<user>
sudo apt-get install uboot-mkimage 
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/lenny/v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4/linux-image-2.6.27-oer4_1.0lenny_armel.deb
sudo dpkg -i linux-image*

Extract linux-image's vmlinuz-*

dpkg -x linux-image* ./temp

Mount fat32 partition

sudo mount /dev/mmcblk0p1 /mnt

Build uboot compatible image and copy to fat32 boot partition

sudo mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x80008000 -e 0x80008000 -n "Linux" -d ./temp/boot/vmlinuz-*  /mnt/uImage

Clean up

rm -rfd temp

Sync, umount Partitions and Reboot

QEMU install method via debian-installer (emulated arm core via Desktop PC)

Install QEMU on your host PC. This assumes that your host PC is running Debian as well. If not, install QEMU the way your host PC distribution uses.

apt-get install qemu

Note: If your debian armel image crashes while fscking the partition, rebuild qemu from trunk.

PC: Format SD Card

You will need a 1GB SD card or greater.

Standard System : ~455MB
+ Desktop environment (GNOME) : ~2.9GB

Starting with an empty SD card and using gparted, create:

50 MiB Primary Partition, fat32
Leave remaining space for the Debian-Installer

PC: Preparation

Create a working directory to keep your files organized.

mkdir debian-armel
cd debian-armel/
wget ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/initrd.gz
wget ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/dists/lenny/main/installer-armel/current/images/versatile/netboot/vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile

PC: Install Debian in QEMU

Quick Note: Debian Lenny is undergoing Beta/RC testing so these debian installers are currently way out of date, so it will tell you their are unavailable kernel modules, just ignore the question and continue. These modules will be provided later, with the provided linux-image deb.

To install (ARM EABI) Debian inside QEMU:

sudo qemu-system-arm -M versatilepb -kernel vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile -initrd initrd.gz -m 256 -hda /dev/sdX -append "root=/dev/ram mem=256M"

Note: root/sudo access is required to access /dev/sdX directly (verify mmc card with fdisk -l)

Partition disks, default settings should work for most: Guided - use the largest continuous free space

Beagleboarddebian-partitiondisk.png

PC: Running Debian in QEMU (Optional)

Note: This section is only useful for people with out a usb-network device for their beagle who would like to install additional applications, otherwise just skip to the next subsection to install your linux-kernel by copying files from your desktop pc to a SD card.

sudo qemu-system-arm -M versatilepb -kernel vmlinuz-2.6.26-1-versatile -m 256 -hda /dev/sdX -append "root=/dev/sda2 mem=256M"

Note: Time will be incorrect.

sudo apt-get install ntpdate
ntpdate pool.ntp.org

Install default deb packages for linux-image & linux-headers.

Stable  2.6.27
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/lenny/v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4/linux-image-2.6.27-oer4_1.0lenny_armel.deb
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/lenny/v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4/linux-headers-2.6.27-oer4_1.0lenny_armel.deb
sudo dpkg -i *.deb

Note: It's easier to download these straight to the sd card after you've mounted the SD card to copy uImage to the FAT partition.

PC: Linux Kernel Preparation

Install uboot-mkimage utility

sudo apt-get install uboot-mkimage 

Remount SD card, Ubuntu remounts SD card like this:

/media/disk/ <fat32>
/media/disk-1/ <ext3>

Download Kernel-Image

cd /media/disk-1/home/<user>/ 
wget http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/lenny/v2.6.27-2a3408b-oer4/linux-image-2.6.27-oer4_1.0lenny_armel.deb

Extract linux-image's vmlinuz-*

dpkg -x linux-image* ./temp

Build uboot compatiable image and copy to /media/disk/ <fat32 boot partition>

mkimage -A arm -O linux -T kernel -C none -a 0x80008000 -e 0x80008000 -n "Linux" -d ./temp/boot/vmlinuz-*  /media/disk/uImage

Clean up

rm -rfd temp

Sync, umount Partitions and Install sd card in beagleboard

Beagleboard First Boot, uboot, general notes

Insert SD Card and power up Beagleboard.

Boot

Using a terminal program, stop u-boot and add these commands:

For Linux Kernel 2.6.26 and 2.6.27
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro video=omapfb:mode:1280x720@60'
saveenv
boot
video=omapfb:mode:1280x720@60
Modes:
"640x480@60""800x600@60""1024x768@60""1280x720@60"480p60""576p50""720p50""720p60""1080p24""1080p25""1080p30",
For Linux Kernel 2.6.28 and higher using DSS2
setenv bootcmd 'mmcinit; fatload mmc 0:1 0x80300000 uImage; bootm 0x80300000'
setenv bootargs 'console=ttyS2,115200n8 console=tty0 root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rootdelay=2 rootfstype=ext3 ro omap-dss.def_disp=lcd omapfb.video_mode=1280x720MR-24@60'
saveenv
boot

The Beagleboard will reboot 3-4 times while the ext3 filesystem is repaired. (may have to remove power etc)

Upgrading u-boot (2.6.27's and later)

Using gparted, create a new 50MB Primary fat32 Parition on blank SD card.

wget http://www.angstrom-distribution.org/demo/beagleboard/u-boot.bin
cp u-boot.bin /media/disk

uboot

mmcinit
fatload mmc 0 0x80200000 u-boot.bin
nand unlock
nand ecc sw
nand erase 80000 160000
nand write.i 0x80200000 80000 160000
reset

Debian on Beagleboard

Debian on BeagleBoard uses the following configuration:

  • Console log = Serial Terminal
  • User Console = HDMI port + usb (keyboard, mouse, etc)

If you want to log in with the serial port, you will have to add to /etc/inittab

 S:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 ttyS2

And if you want to log in as root on the serial port, add ttyS2 to /etc/securetty.

Xorg

Modify /etc/X11/xorg.conf

Section "Device"
	Identifier	"Configured Video Device" 
	Option		"UseFBDev"		"true"
	Driver		"fbdev"
EndSection

Beagleboarddebian-GNOME.jpg

Note: 'fbdev' is normally *slow* since it completely relies on the system cpu to update the framebuffer. Once the video processing core's driver is released this will no longer be an issue.

Current Issues

  1. Swap disabled: change /dev/hda5 -> /dev/mmcblk0p5 in /etc/fstab (artifact of qemu install to /dev/hdaX)
  2. RTC seems to be not enabled: use ntpdate when ethernet works, or issue date MMDDHHMMYYYY

Advanced: Building a Native Debian Kernel

Note, these are just general build hints.

Install Dependencies

apt-get install git-core kernel-package fakeroot build-essential curl libncurses-dev

u-boot

There is a debian package for this now:

apt-get install uboot-mkimage 

If you must build from upstream:

wget -nc http://beagleboard.googlecode.com/files/u-boot_beagle_revb.tar.gz
tar -xf u-boot_beagle_revb.tar.gz
cd u-boot/
make CROSS_COMPILE= distclean
make CROSS_COMPILE= omap3530beagle_config
make CROSS_COMPILE= tools

Add /tools/ to $PATH

PATH=/home/<user>/u-boot/tools:"${PATH}"

Linux Kernel

git clone git://git2.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tmlind/linux-omap-2.6.git
cd linux-omap-2.6/
git checkout -b beagle <tag you wish to use>

Patch Kernel with patches you need:

patch -p1 < ~/dl/patches/*.patch

Setup Kernel .config

make CROSS_COMPILE= distclean

Copy or Make your defconfig

cp ~/dl/defconfig .config
or 
make CROSS_COMPILE= menuconfig

Create Debian linux-image* & linux-headers* Package

make-kpkg --cross_compile - clean
fakeroot make-kpkg --cross_compile - kernel_image kernel_headers

Create U-boot uImage

make CROSS_COMPILE= uImage

Deb Builder

Auto builds for lenny, sid, and mojo's; linux-image and linux-headers's in appropriate schroot's.

Latest Images Changelog

Rebuilding *.deb Kernel's from Source

Note, this is done native on the BeagleBoard...

GIT Checkout, Beagleboard patches, and defconfig.

Requires:

sudo aptitude install git-core gcc wget kernel-package fakeroot build-essential

For this example lets look at: http://cgit.openembedded.net/cgit.cgi?url=openembedded/commit/&id=2d2df68f89a7f8dffd87cb9db42cad8c46891c28

All build that i do are logged here: http://www.rcn-ee.com/deb/kernel/changes.txt

Retrieve the GIT checkout

GIT Checkout: 15f75b6226c2d3b82062bb721e7cb9a1d6f35efd or Shorthand: 15f75b6

git-clone git://git2.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tmlind/linux-omap-2.6.git
cd linux-omap-2.6/

or if you already downloaded it..

cd linux-omap-2.6/
git pull

git checkout 15f75b6
git checkout -b v2.6.28-15f75b6
git archive --format=tar --prefix=v2.6.28-15f75b6/ v2.6.28-15f75b6 | gzip > ../v2.6.28-15f75b6.tar.gz
git checkout master
git branch v2.6.28-15f75b6 -D
cd ..

Copy patches and defconfig

Open linux-omap**.bb: http://cgit.openembedded.net/cgit.cgi?url=openembedded/tree/packages/linux/linux-omap_git.bb&id=2d2df68f89a7f8dffd87cb9db42cad8c46891c28

This contains 20+ patches need to form a specific (oe) Openembedded release, too keep things neat and simple for my beagle builder, I'll usually combine this into a single diff located here along with the defconfig. http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-15f75b6-oer9/

wget http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-15f75b6-oer9/v2.6.28-15f75b6-oer9.diff
wget http://rcn-ee.homeip.net:81/dl/omap/beagle/v2.6.28-15f75b6-oer9/defconfig

Rebuild Deb

Extract Kernel Source

tar -xf v2.6.28-15f75b6.tar.gz
cd v2.6.28-15f75b6/

Apply Patch

patch -p1 < ../v2.6.28-15f75b6-oer9.diff

Copy Defconfig

cp ../defconfig .config

Testing Changes

make menuconfig 

Clean

make-kpkg --cross_compile - clean

Build

fakeroot make-kpkg --cross_compile - kernel_image kernel_headers

(and wait 2hr 15mins)